How Did Basalt Form
Basalt, the main component of the oceanic crust, is a basic volcanic rock.It is the most important component of the earth's oceanic crust and the moon's lunar sea, as well as the important component of the earth's continental crust and the moon's lunar land.
Basalt is a dense or foamy rock formed when lava from a volcano cools and solidifies.In the geological classification of rocks, it belongs to the igneous rocks (also known as igneous rocks).Magmatic rock is divided into intrusive rock and extrusive rock.Among them, the intrusive rock is the upper part of the crust invaded by the underground magma under the action of internal force. The rock layer cools and solidifies to form the rock.Extruded rock is the underground magma under the action of internal force, along the crust of the weak zone extruded surface condensation and rock formation, its mineral crystallization particles fine, some have a flow pattern or pore structure, on behalf of the rock is basalt.
The temperature of magma flowing out of the volcano is as high as 1,200 degrees centigrade. Due to its viscosity, when the terrain is gentle, the magma flows very slowly, only a few meters away per minute.The speed quickened considerably when the steep slope was encountered.As it flows, it carries a lot of water vapor and bubbles. As it cools, it forms various shapes.
Basalt is a good raw material for producing "cast stone"."Cast stone" is the basalt after melting casting, crystallization treatment, annealing materials.It is harder and more durable than alloy steel and more resistant to corrosion than lead and rubber.Basalt also plays the role of "lubricant" in an advanced steel casting process, which can extend the life of the casting film.At the same time, basalt can be drawn into glass fiber, glass fiber cloth than the general alkali resistance, high temperature resistance is good.
Among them much the basalt of stomata shape, also call pumice, its stomata is much, quality of a material is hard, can mix it in concrete, can make concrete weight is reduced, not only strong and durable, have the characteristic such as sound insulation, heat insulation at the same time, it is the good aggregate of lightweight concrete of tall building.Pumice stone is also a good grinding material, can be used to grind metal, grinding stone;It can also be used as filter, dryer and catalyst in industry.At the same time is also widely used in the garden landscape, mainly used as rockery, bonsai and so on, but also used in the family decoration.
Basalt excellent conditions of compressive flexural performance, and good wear resistance, bibulous rate is low, it is also very good building decoration materials, can be widely used in indoor and outdoor decoration, and mainly used for outdoor stone material, its design and color is natural, good coordination and the neighboring landscape, very suitable for outdoor landscape construction, especially the shakedown is the best choice of the stone.However, as described above, basalt easy to form a hexagonal columnar joint, and easy to brittle, so stone materials are generally not large, the lack of aniseed, not easy to produce large specification plate.
Basalt is widely used, and its application is not limited to the construction industry, such as basalt is a good raw material for the production of "cast stone", after melting casting, crystallization treatment, annealing and other processes, can form alloy steel hard and wear resistance, than lead and rubber corrosion resistance of a new material;Basalt can also play the role of "lubricant" in an advanced steel casting process, which can extend the life of the casting film.And basalt can also be drawn into glass fiber, the production of basalt glass fiber cloth than the general glass fiber cloth alkali resistance, high temperature resistance is good.
Basalt is also used to repair the road, railway, airport runway in the stone of the best materials, with strong pressure resistance, crushing value, strong corrosion resistance, low asphalt adhesion basalt stone, basalt stone has wear-resisting, less important, conductive performance is poor, strong resistance to pressure, crushing value is low, the corrosion resistance is strong, and the advantages of asphalt adhesion, and by the international recognition, is the cornerstone of the development of railway transportation and road transportation is best.